Bone Broth 101
The Difference Between Stock and Broth In Recipes
Stock and broth are two key ingredients for home cooks and professional chefs alike. Both have their place in the kitchen, offering different utility for different dishes. One has more inherent flavor than the other, while another may have more nutritional value.
The big question is, are they interchangeable in recipes? What happens when you substitute one for the other? Does it really matter in the end? And if so, how do we level the playing field in the kitchen?
Ingredients and Cook Time
While the ingredients for all three (broth, stock, and bone broth) are pretty similar, there are a few key differences to point out to better help you understand when you might want to use broth vs stock when cooking.
First and foremost, consider the cooking time for each. A good broth can be whipped up in a matter of a couple of hours simmering on the stove, while stock and bone broth range from six to 24 hours to make. The reason for this time discrepancy leads us to the slight differences in ingredients.
When making broth, you include meat in your cooking liquid, either with or without bones. You might toss in a whole chicken or chicken breasts, simmering the meat and the bones together as a base for chicken soup, whereas with a strict chicken stock, you’d only use chicken bones. Same goes for beef broth. Perhaps you’d braise a bone-in cut of beef to make a bit of broth, but you’d use stripped marrow bones for a simple beef stock.
All three of these cooking liquids require some veggies for flavor — often a French mirepoix of carrots, onion, and celery, but it can also include garlic, ginger, and tomato paste. A good stock often leaves out additional herbs (like bay leaves or parsley) and salt to allow for more diverse uses in the kitchen.
Uses for Stock, Broth, and Bone Broth
As we hinted earlier, one of the main functional differences between stock and broth is the flavor profile. Due to the meat simmering in the liquid while making broth, the end result harkens back to the flavorful elements of the animal used to make it.
For chicken broth, a two-hour cook time will mean that the actual meat can still be strained and eaten or combined with more veggies to make a broth-based soup. Broth imparts a noticeable flavor to the food you cook using it. Try using broth instead of water the next time you make rice, and you’ll notice a more flavorful finished product.
Cooks and chefs use broth as a flavorful liquid base for clear soups and stews (such as chicken noodle soup), while they might lean on a standard stock as a base for more complex sauces that need to start with a neutral base.
Stock is also thicker with a gelatinous texture, due to the breakdown of connective tissue that takes place during a longer cook time. If you’re searching for the perfect base for a thick gravy or even a seafood stew, stock is the better way to go because the meat flavor won’t overwhelm the finished product.
What About Bone Broth?
As for bone broth, this term is probably confusing after all we’ve discussed so far. Bone broth calls for bones and a long cook time, just like stock. But cook time for bone broth is typically longer than a standard stock, up to 48 hours, and it’s seasoned like broth so that it can be sipped warm on its own.
Because most bone broths are made using saved scraps at home, such as chicken carcasses from a leftover rotisserie chicken, chicken wings, and sometimes feet, there’s also a combination of meat and bones going into the brew. So it’s a bit of a hybrid of both stock and broth (1).
Another critical difference between stock and bone broth is the addition of an acidic ingredient, such as apple cider vinegar or lemon juice, which furthers the process of leaching out the nutrients and flavors from the animal bones into the cooking liquid.
Animal bones, especially those that contain connective tissue like joints and tendons, are among the most potent sources of gelatin and collagen. These nutrients, in addition to the minerals found in bone broth, have been shown to help heal a leaky gut, boost the immune system, and improve hair, skin, and nails.
What About Vegetable Stock vs Broth?
If defining characteristics of stock and broth are the presence of bones and meat respectively, what’s the difference between vegetable stock and vegetable broth? In short, not much. A quick trip down your grocery store aisle will tell you that there’s no real difference between the two, although stock might be lower in sodium, depending on the brand you select (2).
What Happens if I Use Stock Instead of Broth (or Vice Versa) in a Recipe?
We’ve established the main differences between stock and broth, so what happens if you interchange them in a recipe? The main difference will be in flavor, but you might also notice a difference in texture or consistency as well (especially in the case of homemade stock, which tends to be more gelatinous than the store-bought stuff).
If you have a recipe that calls for stock, but you only have broth at home, you might want to hold off on adding salt and seasonings until you’ve tasted the finished dish because broth tends to have more flavor than stock.
And if you have a recipe that calls for broth, but you only have stock at home, it’s likely you’ll need to add to it to achieve what the recipe envisions. Using a bouillon cube or additional herbs and spices might help you achieve a flavor closer to what the recipe intended. If your homemade stock is on the thicker side and you’re looking for a brothier dish, you might consider adding a touch of water to thin out your stock as well, keeping in mind that it will further water down the flavor and adjusting accordingly.
Ultimately, understanding the difference between broth and stock is key for two big reasons: flavor and nutrition.
Using a stock will require more doctoring to create a rich, complex flavor, all while yielding a thicker texture if it’s cooked long enough to gel in the refrigerator. Using broth will impart more meaty flavors into the final dish and takes less time to prepare at home.
Opting for bone broth offers the best of all worlds: flavor, texture, and nutrients.
Store-Bought Broth vs Homemade
You might be wondering if it’s worth the trouble to make your own broth at home versus just buying the boxed stuff at the store.
The short answer? It depends.
If you’re looking for a soup base to which you’ll add your own meat, flavorings, and vegetables, you might be just fine selecting a box of broth or stock from the store. Most store-bought stock, however, isn’t cooked long enough to gel in your refrigerator, and the gelling factor indicates that you’ve extracted all of those wonderful nutrients we mentioned earlier.
If you’re looking for the healthiest, most nutritious option, you can choose to make your own bone broth at home or find a high-quality brand like Kettle & Fire that puts nutrition and quality ingredients at the top of the priority list.
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